Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.)

These plants are found at an altitude of 1-1200 m asl, mainly grow well at an altitude of 500 m above sea level. Many found growing in ditches, bushes, light woods, and meadows.

Herb with stem climbing, fall, or crawl. Stem angular, bald, fleshy, purplish green color. Living chronic. Strands of elongated oval-shaped leaves, length 3.5 to 12.5 cm, width 1 to 5.5 cm, tip blunt, pointed, or short tapering, base rounded. Flat leaf edge, wavy or slightly toothed. Petiole 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm. Both sides of the leaf surface bare or smooth haired. Inflorescence with compound interest arrangement cup, 2-7 cups arranged in the order panicula until corymb, each plate supporting the 20-35 rates, length 1.5 - 2 cm, width 5-6 mm. Bouquet of flower stalk and bald or short haired, stalk bouquet of 0.5 to 0.7 cm. Brachtea involucralis in the line-shaped or blunt pointed, length 0.3 to 1 cm. Width 0.6 to 1.7 cm, bare, green or brown colored tip reddish. The crown is the type of tube, length 1 to 1.5 cm, orange or orange brass. Needle-shaped stamens, yellow anthers conjoined into one. Fruit-shaped line, length 4-5 mm, brown. The leaves have a composition and fragment corresponding to the nature of plant anatomy sunflower family (Asteraccae = Compositae). Flowering time from January to December. In tissue culture, the best explant for callus growth G. procumbens petiole which is sown. Mode propagation can be done using stem cuttings. The growth of stems and leaves quickly so it can be utilized. Plants will grow well in places shaded by the leaf blade is thinner and wider, making it more delicious to eat fresh.

The leaves of this herb contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids (triterpenoid). Metabolites contained in the ethanol-soluble extract 95% chlorogenic acid, among others, kafeat acid, vanillic acid, acid p? kumarat, acid p? hydroxy benzoate. The results of qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography method to detect the presence of sterols, triterpene, phenolic compounds (including flavonoids), polyphenols, and essential oils. Components of essential oils consist of at least 6 compounds monoterpenes, four sesquiterpenes, 2 kinds of compounds with double bonds, 2 compounds with aldehyde and ketone groups. The results of research in an effort to isolate flavonoids reported the existence of 2 kinds of flavonoid compounds are spotting 1 consists of 2 pieces of flavonol compounds and Auron, while at spotting 11 suspected kaempferol (a flavonol). Compounds contained in the ethanol leaves include flavonoids / flavonols (3? hydroxy flavone) with hydroxyl groups at position 4 ', 7 and 6 or 8 with the substitution group 5? hydroxy. When the compound is a flavonol, the hydroxyl group at position 3 in the substituted state. In addition alleged presence of isoflavones with hydroxyl groups at position 6 or 7.8 (ring A) without the hydroxyl group in ring B. (Source: www.iptek.net.id)

Essential oils of leaves "Sambung Nyawa" which was diluted with ethyl acetate (1:6) can have a positive effect inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, however E. coli was not inhibited by essential oils at the same dilution in vitro. The extract is soluble in ethanol leaf G. procumbens with a dose equivalent to 100 g and 200 g of plants per mouse, 2 times a week for 8 weeks, significantly reduce the number of tumor nodules per lung, as well as the percentage of mice affected by the tumor because of benzo (a) pyrene. Leaf extract residue fraction G. Procumbens dissolved in ethanol have biological activity against vero cells with a minimum inhibitory concentration 4026 ug / ml, against myeloma cells with LC50 187 ug / ml. Leaf extract soluble in water can lower blood glucose levels in normal mice. "Sambung Nyawa" containing asparaginase with specific activity of 0.0175? 0.0080. Incubation time to determine the asparaginase activity of this herb is 40 minutes. The length of incubation time effect on asparaginase activity of this herb. In addition to the incubation time, pH affects the activity of this herb asparaginase and the highest activity at pH 8.6 is 1.64? 0.232 g NH 3 / min / mg protein. Toxicity of leaf extract of G. Procumbens are soluble in ethanol has a LC50 <l000 g / ml, (high toxicity), and have similar biological activity against vero cells with a minimum inhibitory concentration 1753 ug / ml, and against myeloma cells with LC50 72 g / ml. Chloroform-soluble fraction of ethanol extract contained compounds that are mutagenic. LD50 herb leaf extract soluble in ethanol orally in mice is 5556 g / kg BW. Leaf extract soluble in water, methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform G. Procumbens (Lour.) Merr., relatively less toxic to the larvae Artemiasalina Leach. Compounds that dissolve in alcohol extract of stem CCl3 G. procumbens is mutagenic. (Source: www.iptek.net.id)